Breast cancer problems causes and treatment Breast cancer is a disease that primarily affects women, but it can also afflict men, albeit in a considerably smaller percentage, thanks to recent advances in the fields of early identification and treatment of breast cancer, which have helped to minimize the number of deaths from the disease. 5 ways to diagnose breast cancer
Detecting breast cancer used to involve removing the entire breast. Due to the extensive spectrum of treatments available today, these operations are rarely undertaken in exceptional circumstances.
breast cancer tumor classification
Cancerous tumors are classified on a scale of 0-4IV (four), as follows:
- Grade 0
Also called non-invasive or local breast cancer, although these tumors do not have the ability to invade healthy tissue in the breast or spread to other organs in the body, it is important to eradicate and remove them; Because they may turn into invasive tumors in the future.
- Grades 1 - 4
- Class 4
It is a cancerous tumor that has spread outside the breast tissue and spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, bones, and liver, and although cancer cannot be cured at this stage, there is a possibility that it will respond well to a variety of treatments that will cause shrinkage and diminishment. The tumor was kept under control for a long period of time.
Breast cancer symptoms
Breast cancer can be detected early if you are aware of the symptoms and indicators. Being aware of these symptoms and signs can save your life. When the disease is detected in its early stages, the range of available treatments is wider and more diverse, and the chances of a full recovery are very high.
Although most lumps in the breast are benign, a lump or thickening of breast tissue is the most common early symptom of breast cancer in both men and women. This lump is often painless.
Symptoms of breast cancer include :
- Discharge of a transparent or blood-like substance from the nipple, sometimes with the appearance of a tumor in the breast.
- Retraction or indentation of the nipple.
- Change in the size or features of the breast.
- Flattening or indentation of the skin covering the breast.
- Redness or wrinkled skin on the surface of the breast, like an orange peel.
- Warning signs of breast cancer
Breast cancer causes and risk factors
The most common type of breast cancer begins in the milk-producing glands, but it can also start in a sub-lobe or other breast tissue. In most cases, it's not clear why healthy cells in breast tissue turn cancerous.
1. Causes of breast cancerDoctors know the causes of the disease as follows:
Only 5-10% of breast cancer cases are due to genetic causes, there are families who have a defect in one or two genes, such as breast cancer gene No. 1 (BRCA 1) or breast cancer gene No. 2 (BRCA 2), and this is the probability of their children being exposed And her daughters, the risk of breast cancer or ovarian cancer is very high.
- Other genetic defects
The ataxia-telangiectasia mutation gene and the tumor suppressor gene P53 all increase the risk of breast cancer. If one of these genetic defects runs in your family, there is a 50% chance that the defect will be present. You have it too.
Most of the genetic defects associated with breast cancer are not inherited.
These acquired defects may be due to radiation exposure. Women who have been treated with radiation to the chest area for fibroids in childhood or adolescence, or during breast growth and development, are more likely to develop breast cancer than women who have not been exposed to such radiation.
Genetic changes may also occur as a result of exposure to carcinogenic substances, such as some hydrocarbons found in tobacco and charred red meat.
Today, researchers are trying to find out whether there is any relationship between the genetic makeup of a particular person and the environmental factors that may increase the risk of developing breast cancer and may prove that several factors may cause the emergence of breast cancer.
2. Breast cancer risk factors
A risk factor is anything that increases the odds of developing a particular disease. Some risk factors, such as age, gender, and family history, cannot be changed while others, such as smoking or poor diet, can be controlled by humans.
However, even if you have one or more risk factors, it does not necessarily mean that you will get breast cancer, as the majority of women who have breast cancer get it just because they are women and they do not have any other additional risk factors.
As being a woman is the most important risk factor for breast cancer, although men are also at risk of developing breast cancer, it is much more common among women.
Other major risk factors that can increase the risk of developing breast cancer include:
- A personal history of breast cancer.
- family history
- genetic tendency.
- exposure to radiation.
- Menstruation at a relatively early age.
- Reaching menopause at a relatively late age.
- Hormone therapy.
- Take birth control pills.
- Precancerous changes in breast tissue.
- The high density of breast tissue on mammography.
Age and the exact period of menopause may affect breast tissue density, as the density of breast tissue in young women is usually higher than in older women.
greater the amount of breast tissue in one's breast Despite this, the chance of developing breast cancer as a result of increased breast tissue density is just a few percent higher than it would otherwise be.
If you are in one of the high-risk groups for breast cancer and your breast tissue density is high, it may be difficult to analyze the mammography, and your doctor may urge that you undergo other types of screening tests to rule out cancer.
Causes of non-malignant tumors in the breast
It is possible that a change in the size or texture of the breast is caused by a medical illness other than breast cancer. When a woman is pregnant or menstruating, her breast tissue changes in a normal manner.
In addition to the above, the following are other possible causes of noncancerous tumors in the breast:
- Fibrocystic alterations are seen.
- A fibroadenoma is a benign tumor.
- Inflammation or damage are also possible outcomes.
Breast cancer complications
The following are examples of complications:
- Changes in the breast's anatomical structure.
- Chronic discomfort, phantom breast pain, and axillary web syndrome are all conditions that can occur.
- Fatigue and cognitive impairment are common side effects of chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Diagnosis
It is important to notify your doctor if you notice a lump or other change in your breast, even if your recent mammography came back normal.
Although it is recommended to wait for one menstrual cycle before consulting a doctor, if the changes in the breast do not vanish after one month, it is necessary to visit a doctor for an evaluation of the problem. The most common techniques of diagnosis are as follows:
1. Photographic documentation
Searching for signs of breast cancer before the first symptoms arise is essential for early detection of breast cancer while it is still at an early stage when it can be treated successfully.
Mammography or other examinations are performed in accordance with information about your age and potential risk groups to which you may belong.
2. Conduct a self-exam of the breasts
It is important to note that breast self-examination is only one option and should be done on a regular basis beginning at the age of 20. Having experience with breast self-examination and familiarity with your own breast tissue and structure on a regular basis may enable you to detect early signs of breast cancer.
You should become familiar with the appearance of your breasts and be on the lookout for any changes in the feel or appearance of the breast tissue. Any changes you see should be reported to your doctor as soon as possible.
3. Clinico-assisted breast examination
During this examination, the doctor examines the breast tissue for lumps or other alterations that may have occurred in the breast tissue. In addition, the doctor may note an increase in the size of the lymph nodes in the armpit area, which you may have been unable to identify on your own.
4. Mammography is a procedure in which a woman is screened for breast cancer.
There are two types of mammograms: screening and diagnostic.
- Mammography with a scanning device.
- Mammography for diagnostic purposes.
Despite this, radiographic examinations are not without flaws; there is a small proportion of malignant tumors and masses that can be felt on physical examination but do not appear on the X-ray image.
Breast tissue density is higher among women in their forties than among women in their thirties, which makes it difficult to distinguish between healthy and abnormal tissue. Women in their thirties and younger women are more likely than older women to have a higher density of breast tissue, which makes it difficult to distinguish between healthy and abnormal tissue.
5. Additional examinations
Among the other significant examinations are the ones listed below:
- The use of computer-assisted detection.
- Digital mammography is a mammogram that uses digital technology.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of imaging that uses radio waves to create images.
Diagnostic techniques aid in the identification and characterization of breast tissue anomalies that are discovered by routine examinations, such as identifying a lump in the breast by palpation, or through imaging procedures such as mammography or magnetic resonance imaging.
A biopsy is a medical process in which cells or tissue are removed as a sample for analysis and inspection in a laboratory. These tests assist your doctor in determining if you require a biopsy and in developing guidelines for doing a biopsy.
7. Ultrasound examination
Using this test, you can determine whether or not the lumps that have been found in the breast are solid.
It is the only test that can prove the presence of malignant cells in a patient's bloodstream. Having a biopsy performed can provide us with extremely valuable information about any abnormal or abnormal changes in breast tissue, as well as assist us to evaluate whether or not surgery is required and what type of surgery is needed.
The following types of biopsies may be performed:
- Fine needle biopsy is a type of biopsy that uses a fine needle.
- Biopsy with a core needle
- Stereotactic biopsy is a type of biopsy that uses a stereotactic device to take a sample of tissue.
- Biopsy performed surgically.
The presence of hormone receptors in cancer cells that have been removed during a biopsy can be determined by testing the cells. Whether you have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or both, your doctor will likely recommend that you take drugs, such as Tamoxifen, that prevent estrogen from reaching certain areas of your body.
10. Staging check
Staging tests are used to assess the size and location of a malignant tumor, as well as whether or not the tumor has metastasized and spread to other parts of the body. The staging process also aids in the planning of treatment actions.
If you or a member of your family has had one or more hereditary incidences of breast cancer, blood testing can be used to identify the faulty gene or faults in other genes that have been handed down from one generation to the next within the family.
These tests are frequently inconclusive, and they should only be performed in exceptional circumstances and after consulting with genetic counseling professional. Genetic diagnostic testing is normally not required if you do not fall into one of the high-risk groups for breast cancer or ovarian cancer based on your genetic background.
Genetic diagnosis is only useful in the majority of situations if the results of the screening assist you in determining the most effective means of minimizing your cancer risk.
breast cancer treatment
Having breast cancer diagnosed is one of the most terrible things a person may go through in their life. As a result of being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness, you must also make decisions concerning your treatment program, which is not an easy task.
The medical team should be consulted about the available breast cancer treatment options, and it is advisable to receive a second opinion from a breast cancer specialist. It is also beneficial to speak with other women who have gone through a similar experience.
A wide range of treatments is now available for patients at every stage of the disease. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy are all commonly used in conjunction with mastectomy in the majority of cases. For this form of cancer, there are also a number of investigational treatments being tested.
There are several primary therapy options, which are as follows:
1. Surgical intervention
Depending on your decision to have a full mastectomy, you may later consider having an operation to reconstruct your breast. The following surgical methods are used to remove malignant tumors from the breast:
removing the malignant tumor from the body
Radiation treatments are always administered after surgical operations to remove a cancerous tumor in order to eliminate any cancer cells that may have remained after the tumor has been removed.
Types of mastectomy surgeries include:
- Breast excision can be done in sections or as a whole.
- Excision is as simple as it gets.
- A total mastectomy is performed.
Biopsy of a sentinel lymph node
Surgical removal of the axillary lymph nodes
Breast reconstruction and reconstruction surgery are two of the most common procedures.
Discuss your options with your surgeon prior to undergoing any type of surgery for breast reconstruction.
Not every woman is a good candidate for breast augmentation or reconstruction. In addition to providing advice on a number of operations, a plastic surgeon can show you images of women who have undergone various breast reconstruction procedures, and you can speak with him to determine which sort of operation is most appropriate for you and your particular case.
Your alternatives may include reconstruction with an artificial implant or a tissue transplant from your own body, and these surgeries can be performed either during or after a mastectomy, depending on your circumstances.
Types of breast reconstruction and reconstruction include:
- The use of artificial tissue in the body.
- Folding of one's own tissue paper.
- DIEP is an abbreviation for Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator.
- nipple and areola reconstruction
Today, radiation therapy is used to treat many cancer patients; some doctors use it as a stand-alone treatment, while others use it in conjunction with other treatments such as chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy's primary purpose is to reduce tumors and kill cancer cells as quickly as possible. While radiation can damage healthy cells as well as cancer cells, it is not required to do so in order to kill cancer cells because healthy cells have the ability to regenerate.
Chemotherapy may be more effective than both surgery and radiation in the treatment of malignant tumors, owing to the fact that chemotherapy can reach all regions of the body, rather than only specific areas as in surgery or radiation.
A cancer patient may be given chemotherapy treatments to shrink the size of his tumor before undergoing surgery to remove it or before beginning radiation therapy sessions.
When chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, it targets genes and protein components in cancer cells, killing them and stopping the creation of new tumors while also keeping food from reaching them through the blood vessels.
4. Hormone replacement therapy
For women with hormone-sensitive cancer, hormone-blocking therapy may be combined with drugs such as tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor to get the desired results.
This medication inhibits the production of estrogen in the body.
5. Biological therapy (also known as biotherapy)
The advancement of scientific knowledge about the differences between healthy cells and cancer cells has resulted in the development of targeted therapies that are designed to address these differences, with therapy taking place on a biological basis.
Three types of biological treatments are available to treat breast cancer, the most notable of which are:
Breast cancer prevention
- Prevention by chemical means
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (ERMs) are the primary target of these therapies (SERMs).
- A preventative procedure of surgery
Women at high risk for breast cancer may benefit from surgery as a preventive treatment, despite the fact that it is an invasive procedure.
- As a preventative strategy, a mastectomy is performed.
- Preventative ovariectomy.
- Lifestyle changes
- Avoid alcoholic beverages.
- Keeping a healthy weight in check is really important.
- Avoid using hormones for an extended period of time.
- The key to staying healthy is to engage in regular physical activity.
- Eat a diet high in fiber-rich foods.
- Consumption of olive oil in excess.
- Insecticides should be avoided.
- Possible preventative treatments
- A substance called retinoic acid.