How does the menstrual cycle occur? What are the symptoms that accompany it and the disorders that affect it?
The menstrual cycle, also called the menstrual cycle, is a complex natural process that occurs inside a woman's body, in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy each month, so how does the menstrual cycle occur? Here are the most important details:
What are the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle?
The menstrual cycle begins in a woman’s life during puberty and ends or stops permanently at menopause. Menstruation is a process of shedding of the uterine lining accompanied by bleeding, which occurs on a monthly basis throughout the reproductive period of a woman.
In answer to your question: How does the menstrual cycle occur? The menstrual cycle occurs inside a woman’s body in the form of sequential stages, which are controlled by stimulating the production and secretion of certain hormones that are secreted from the pituitary gland located in the brain and from the ovaries in the female reproductive system.
The average normal menstrual cycle is approximately 28 days, starting on the first day of menstruation and ending just before the next menstrual cycle begins.
In general, the steps for a menstrual cycle are as follows:
- Menses phase
The menstrual period, also called menstruation, is the period during which a woman bleeds and the lining of the uterus sheds from the vagina, and the menstrual period usually varies from one female to another and often lasts from the first day of menstruation to the fifth or seventh day.
- Follicular phase
The follicular phase, which is called the follicular phase, occurs on the sixth to the fourteenth day of menstruation. During this phase, the uterine lining grows again and becomes thicker as a result of the high level of estrogen hormone.
In addition, another hormone called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles called follicles, and during the tenth to the fourteenth day, one of these follicles will release a mature egg.
To complete the answer to how the menstrual cycle occurs and during the ovulation phase, mature eggs are released from the ovary as a result of the sudden rise in the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), and ovulation often occurs on the 14th day of the menstrual cycle.
- Luteal phase
During the process of ovulation, the egg explodes from its follicle, and the ruptured follicle remains on the surface of the ovary, and then the luteal phase occurs, also called the phase of the corpus luteum, where the ruptured follicle turns into a mass of cells called the corpus luteum, which will be responsible for producing a high amount of the hormone progesterone. And a small percentage of estrogen.
On the other hand, the egg begins to move through the fallopian tube to the uterus after its exit from the ovary, where the hormones progesterone and estrogen maintain the thickened lining of the uterus in preparation for the implantation of the fertilized egg in it, and here one of the two things will happen:
Pregnancy occurs if an egg is fertilized by a sperm and implants itself in the uterine wall.
If it doesn't, the level of female hormones drops, causing the thickened uterine lining to shed and bleed through the vagina during menstruation.
The luteal phase usually lasts from day 15 to day 28 of menstruation.
Menstrual cycle symptoms
After getting to know the answer about how the menstrual cycle occurs, we mention that the duration and symptoms of the menstrual period vary from one female to another, and from one month to another. In general, bleeding may be accompanied by some of the following symptoms:
- Abdominal and lower back pain.
- Swelling and inflammation of the breasts.
- young love.
- Mood Swings.
- Cravings to eat.
The most common menstrual problems are:
- 1. Dysmenorrhoea
Dysmenorrhea may occur as a result of the effect of some hormones, which cause the uterus to contract stronger than usual to get rid of the shed lining of the uterus, which leads to more severe pain than usual.
- 2. Amenorrhoea
In the normal state, menopause can occur in certain periods of a woman's reproductive life, including: during pregnancy and lactation, pre-puberty, and at menopause.
In abnormal cases, menopause can occur as a result of excessive physical stress, as a result of high or low body weight, or as a result of other gynecological or hormonal diseases.
- 3. Irregular periods
The problem of irregular menstruation may occur as a result of many reasons, including hormonal changes, a change in the method of contraception, or due to physical stress.
- 4. Premenstrual syndrome
It is a group of symptoms that start before menstruation, and that may occur as a result of hormonal changes that occur before menstruation, and these symptoms may include:
- fluid retention;
- Emotional symptoms.
- 5. Heavy menstrual bleeding
Heavy menstrual bleeding can occur as a result of some gynecological disorders, such as endometriosis, known as endometriosis, or as a result of hormonal changes; Such as polycystic ovary syndrome, or hypothyroidism, which may cause anemia if left untreated.